Frederick and Prince Henry marched the Prussian army into Bohemia to confront Joseph's army, but the two forces ultimately descended into a stalemate, largely living off the land and skirmishing rather than actively attacking each other. On an even more fundamental level, the General Education Regulations General-Landschul-Reglement of attempted to create a system of universal primary education throughout the Prussian monarchy.
In principle, Frederick sincerely disliked serfdom. His rather incomplete victory at Chotusitz in May nonetheless forced Maria Theresa to cede almost all of Silesia by the Treaty of Berlin of in July. Frederick's subsequent invasion of Austrian Bohemia, though initially successful, ended in his first defeat at the Battle of Kolin and forced him into retreat.
August 5, Frederick participates in the First Partition of Poland. Accordingly, he renewed his alliance with the French and preemptively invaded Bohemia in Augustbeginning the Second Silesian War.
But this new conflict showed unmistakably that Austro-Prussian rivalry stemming from the events of —41 was now a deeply ingrained fact of German political life.
Austria had tried to gain Bavaria. In the following year he saw active military service for the first time under the great Austrian commander Eugene of Savoy against the French army in the Rhineland. It also moved its geographic centre decisively to the east and sharpened the social and political differences that tended to separate it from the states of western Europe.
May 13, Frederick becomes the leader of Prussia. Wilhelmine recorded that the two "soon became inseparable. Those hitherto in power have destroyed the schools, thinking that the uneducated people are easily oppressed.
As social and political conditions change, so do the questions we ask of the past and our ways of posing and answering them. Still, Frederick experimented with a number of new taxes, notably with a new system of taxing tobacco and some less important commodities introduced in under the supervision of a French entrepreneurLe Haye de Launaybut these innovations did not bring about significant changes.
For all his social and intellectual conservatism he never ceased to feel himself in sympathy with the enlightened intellectual currents and political strivings of the age and with their tolerant and humanitarian aspects. It was written in French and published anonymously inbut Voltaire distributed it in Amsterdam to great popularity.
Nevertheless, his reign saw a revolutionary change in the importance and prestige of Prussia, which was to have profound implications for much of the subsequent history of Europe.
In order to finance the great army, heavy demands were made on territories that for the most part were poor. Frederick bestowed the title of the heir to the throne, "Prince of Prussia", on his brother Augustus William ; despite this, his wife remained devoted to him.
The provincial War and Domains Chambers established by Frederick William I in remained very important, and their number grew from 9 to In he tried indirectly to interest Catherine II of Russia in a partition but in vain.
Believing that his army had been defeated by the Austrians, Frederick sought to avoid capture and galloped away,  leaving Field Marshal Kurt Schwerin in command of the army.
InFrederick finished his Anti-Machiavelan idealistic refutation of Machiavelli. But he was just, intelligent, and skilled in the management of affairs In addition, the army provided a large market for arms and woolen cloth for uniforms and thus did something to stimulate economic growth.
In Frederick inherited a standing army of 83, men; when he died, this figure had risen tothough of these only about 80, were Prussian subjects. Yet he would have rejected outright, and on the whole with justification, any suggestion that he ruled as a despot.
By this Prussia gained the Polish province of West Prussia though without the great commercial city of Danzigand thus Brandenburg and Pomerania, the core of the monarchy, became linked with the theretofore isolated East Prussia.
Although Frederick gave Elisabeth Christine all the honors befitting her station, he rarely saw her during his reign and never showed her any affection. The ruler could carry out his duties effectively only if he kept the reins of government firmly in his own hands.
It also produced the majority of his officials and all his ministers and completely dominated local government in the countryside. But here again his outlook was essentially conservative. The result was the signature in May of a Franco-Austrian defensive alliance.Frederick II of Prussia was known as Frederick the Great.
Through diplomacy and brilliant military campaigns, he greatly expanded Prussia's territories and established the empire as a key military power in Europe, despite.
Son of an abusive father, Frederick II blossomed when he took the throne. He attracted the great thinkers of Europe to his court while establishing Prussia as a dominant military power.
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Mitford was a well known and talented novelist whose books, most famously The Pursuit of Love and Love in a Cold Climate, were charming, hilarious, and moving/5(5). Frederick The Great Biography Frederick II or Frederick the Great was King of Prussia from until This biography profiles his childhood, life, reign, achievements and kaleiseminari.com Of Birth: Berlin.
Life and work Frederick the Great, King of Prussia (). This portrait is regarded as Anton Graff's masterpiece. Contemporaries claimed it was the best and most accurate portrait of Frederick the Great.Download